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FALL 2016

This project deals with how the body inhibits space. For this project, predetermined plots of land were selected at High School Park in Elkins Park, PA. Each plot of land was measured by a group of students, using one students body as a form of measurement. Using this measurement, the dimensions of the site were gathered, along with the location of noticeable landmarks, such as trees or fences. After gathering other group's topographical data, two drawings were created (the project had shifted to an individual basis at this point). Each drawing used four sections (one for each plot of land measured), layered together on the same drawing to form an orthographic projection. One drawing was quantitative in nature, while the other drawing was to be qualitative in nature. While the quantitative drawing focused on the most accuracy and detail possible, the qualitative focused on the spaces in relation to light and dark, using shadow as a medium. All drawings are 1/8" = 1' scale.


After these two drawings were completed, a new site was chosen. This new site was a 500' square, and measurements using the body were used again to determine the topography. With these measurements, section and plan drawings were created of the new site. Several diagrams were created using the plan, defining the space using concepts such as "threshold," "edge," and "movement." These individual diagrams were then complied into a composite diagram of the site. A panoramic view was created to show the first hand visual experience of someone walking in the site.

This project was centered around movement and spatial structure. For this project, a site was chosen at High School Park in Elkins Park, PA. After measuring the site, a pathway was determined. Using the measurements of the site (scaling the height logarithmically using the formula X*X*1/8 for effect), a cardboard armature was built using contours perpendicular to the determined pathway. This allows the exploration of a three-dimensional site, looking at the rhythm and geometry of the land.


After the cardboard armature was completed, a paper module was developed. This module is used as a repetitive element. Multiple modules are joined through interlocking slots to form large clusters. These clusters are then interlocked using paper slits, forming the structure that encapsulates the armature. The modules are only assembled in one way, and the clusters only interlock in a single fashion, creating a repetitive system throughout the structure. This system of modules is programmable, as it can be easily copied with no changes or variation. Once this grid system was created, certain clusters were removed to allow it to fit on top of the armature, as well as to create depth in the center to further explore volume. A section of this model was done to understand the effects of light and shadow on the surfaces of the structure. The model and all drawings are 1/4" = 1' scale.

This project focused on the creation of an architectural promenade. This promenade is a walkway in which the visitor experiences the spaces as they move along the path. Building on the concepts of the previous model, the armature was kept the same, with the module clusters being moved various degrees upwards in space. The clusters were supported by a series of wooden dowels, with each dowel connected to the corner of the cluster facing towards the center. The clusters were raised in a grid formation at set intervals, where they connected to form an upwards path towards the top of the structure. This path begins at the base of the armature, and continues in a spiral pattern until it reaches a level space at the top. The path raises its height one cluster at a time, allowing the visitor to traverse upwards along the path.


The promenade allows the visitor to freely move along the path, with different sections tapering off for various vantage points. The path through the promenade includes several enclosed spaces, with walls and coverings of clusters suggesting a perspective to the visitor. The center of the spiral was left open, to allow the visitor to look across the void towards where they would be moving next. An enclosure was placed at the top of the promenade to create shadow in the interior spiral. Several vignettes were created in order to show what potential visitors would experience as they move along the promenade. The openness of the structure allows for the visitor to look in every direction, with each view offering new sights and perspectives. The model and all drawings are 1/4" = 1' scale.


This project focused on shaping forms through the use of 3D software. To begin, six individual curves were drawn in Rhino 3D. These curves were then lofted in a 2D surface. After creating the 2D surface, the surface was duplicated and transformed into a three dimensional polysurface. The polysurface was then divided into contour bands in both directions using the program 123D Make. These bands were 1/2" in thickness and had slot that allowed the model to connect. The slots were placed on the top side of the lower layer and the bottom side of the upper layer for easier assembly. These bands were laser cut onto sheets of museum board, which was assembled into a physical form of the digital model. The model was assembled digitally in Rhino 3D as well. This model aims to create a varying surface, with peaks and valleys creating unique moments as it progresses. This manipulated form is evenly balanced and rests on four different points, making the the model structurally stable. The model maintains its uniform band width through the use of gradual inclines and slopes, as any radical changes expands or diminishes the width of the band. Further information is available in the gallery.

This project was a collaborative effort that expands on both "manipulated form" and "abstracted geometries." For this project, a skin was developed for the model composed with bands in "manipulated form." The basis of the skin comes from a different group member's pattern used in "abstracted geometries." The pattern trace was inversed, leaving the void as its own surface. This void was then rotated 180 degrees and added on top of the original pattern as a second layer. The layers were then merged, as the upper layer slightly overlapped the bottom layer, forming a single joined surface. This surface was then warped to take to form of the model, mimicking its peaks and valleys. To attach the skin to the model, a system of interlocking pegs was added to the underside of the skin. These pegs insert into the holes of the model, allowing the skin to stay securely in place. The digital version of the skin was run though the program  Autodesk Meshmixer, and was able to be 3D printed. Further information is available in the gallery.

This project was about understanding geometry and transformations. The project begins with a natural pattern, in this case, the rings of a crystal. The rings were vectorized into basic geometry. From there, these vectorized rings were transformed through a series of processes into a new pattern. This new pattern became the genesis of four new images, as each new image was a cropped portion of the master pattern. These four cropped images were then transformed themselves into new patterns, exploring degrees of abstraction with each transformation, creating complex geometry. Each layer of these four images were traced in Rhino 3D, creating a digital 3D composition of the intense layering of the images. Once the images were digitally modeled, a physical model was built by laser cutting each individual layer for each of the four images. These physical models were then assembled and adjusted so that each layer is separated from the others. Thin pins were then added to hold the layers in place. This physical model was then reconstructed in Rhino 3D using the previously traced layers. This digital model includes the pins, as it is an exact replica of the physical model. Further information is available in the gallery.

FALL 2015

This project was based on performance. This pavilion had to meet a certain set of requirements. First, the pavilion had to shelter at least one person. Next, the pavilion had to meet the size requirement of 9' X 9' X 9'. Third, it had to provide protection from the sun during the day. Lastly, the pavilion had to provide illumination at night. In order to reach the size requirements, the pavilion has a cylinder base. The diameter of the cylinder is 9', so the pavilion is also 9' in length and width. The pavilion is capped with a cone. The pavilion walls and roof is covered using mylar, as it acts as a skin to the wooden structure.


In order to provide protection during the day, several factors had to be considered.  The orientation of the sun had to be calculated using a solar path diagram. Next, short walls were angled to block sunlight out during the day, but still remain open to allow light out at night. On the north and south sides there are surfaces that angle the light towards the interior side of walls, which diffuse the light from the sun. This diffused light then enters the pavilion, allowing the space to be lit while still providing sun protection. This works inversely at night, where light reflects off the interior walls and exits the structures. The roof uses mylar for protection, as it allows diffused light to be brought inside, and allows light to escape at night. The largest open section of the roof faces away from the sun, as to not let direct sunlight in. A plan, section (showing the pavilion in daytime), and elevation (showing the pavilion at night) were drawn using a 1" = 1' scale.

This project was a collaborative undertaking. The intent of the project was to design and build a screen composed of individual modules. These modules were required to connect through the use of slits. This was designed to be an enclosed space on the site, creating a feeling of privacy in an otherwise open room. The screen was designed with a span of 8' in width, but only 4' needed to be constructed for the project. The screen was to be comprised of four towers of various thicknesses and overhangs. One of the center towers was completely built, and a partially constructed tower was added to show the connection between the towers. This screen is demountable and self supporting.


The modules were created using a triangular cardboard border and a mylar fill. There are 7 cuts, each 1/2" deep on both sides of the triangle. The modules are designed to interlock two slits at a time, so that the modules are secure. The towers are organized into layers, with the highest layer one module deep, and each layer down progressively thicker (for structural support), with the final layer 7 modules deep. The screen was designed to modulate light across the day, keeping in mind the movement of the sun. As the site only had one clear window, light was directed into key positions where the screen would illuminate (through the use of mylar), but not allow the direct light to pass though. There are exceptions, as small breaks between the towers were designed to be porous and let light through. Drawings by other group members are included for reference. All drawings are in scales noted on the bottom left corner.

This project deals with light and shadow on the surface of a 3D structure. A three dimensional pattern was created in order capture light on a complex surface. This pattern evolved into a paper structure. This structure was created using the pattern of repetitive cuts and folds in order to create a sense of spatial depth. This structure is divided into four corners, with the north and south corners being the inverse of the east and west corners. Further, small cuts and folds are used as "windows," as they allow light to enter inside the model, as well as create shadow along the surface. In this case, the light and shadow is used to define the surface of the structure, as well as create depth within the model. For this project, an elevation drawing and a plan drawing was done. These drawings show the varying degrees of shadow across the model. All drawings are to 1" = 1" scale.



This project is an examination of 3D space. The basis of this project is the painting Circles in a Circle by Vasily Kandinsky. This project was a collaborative effort among two other students. After carefully inspecting the painting in person and conducting research on Kandinsky, several conclusions were made about the space of the painting. We determined their was a hierarchy to the colors, with the bands of yellow and blue being the boundaries. As blue was transparent, and creates a tint across the colored circles, it was determined that blue band was in the foreground. As yellow is also transparent, and does not tint the other circles, it was determined that yellow band is in the background. As it large circle is unaffected by the rest of the painting, it was determined that the large circle was in the very front. The spacing of the interior circles was determined by examining which circles tinted the other circles with their transparency. We also determined that since certain circles had a thick outline, that those circles had various degrees of depth (with the thicker correlating to the deepest).


After deciding the order of the painting's elements, a psychical model was created using these conclusions to show the painting in a 3D space. The model was placed inside of a cylinder, as it reads as a circle from a plan view, and as a rectangle in an elevation view (this frame was painted to represent the backdrop of the painting). The model was divided into three sections that could be separated and reattached using Velcro dots. This allowed each member to present an individual section of the model before each section was joined into the whole 3D painting. All drawings are to 1" = 1" scale.

This project deals with analyzing complex form in everyday life. To begin, a pair of shoes were chosen (in this case a pair of New Balance running shoes) and measured. With these measurements, several drawings were made. These drawings included a section of the shoe (cutting vertically down the middle), a plan of the shoe (cutting horizontally above the inner sole), a detail drawing of the heel, and a catalogue drawing of the individual components that form the shoe. All drawings are to 1" = 1" scale.


After these drawings were made, a model for each shoe was made. For the right shoe, a model was created though the technique of layering chipboard. This process of using contours allows for the form of the shoe to be sliced into individual pieces. By deconstructing the shoe, the relationship between the parts of the shoe was explored, and a better understanding of the interior and exterior form was reached. In the left shoe, this idea was further analyzed. The left shoe was constructed using wire as a mold. This wire mold was then given surface through the process of triangulation, where this new wire surface mimicked the actual surface of the shoe. As it only concerns the exterior shape, this abstract model allows for a deeper understanding of the shoe form as a whole.